A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches (45.7 cm) in diameter and 10 feet (3.05 m) high mounted to a backboard. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play. A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the hoop than the three-point line, and three points (a "3 pointer") if the player is "outside" the three-point line. The team with more points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a tie. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or passing it to a teammate. It is a violation (traveling) to walk with the ball, carry it, or to double dribble (to hold the ball and then resume dribbling).
Various violations are generally called "fouls". Disruptive physical contact (a personal foul) is penalized, and a free throw is usually awarded to an offensive player if he is fouled while shooting the ball. A technical foul may also be issued when certain infractions occur, most commonly for unsportsmanlike conduct on the part of a player or coach. A technical foul gives the opposing team a free throw.
Basketball has evolved many commonly used techniques of shooting, passing, and dribbling, as well as specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures (player positioning) and techniques. Typically, the tallest and strongest members of a team will play the "center" or "power forward" positions, while slightly shorter and more agile players will play "small forward", and the shortest players or those who possess the best ball handling skills and speed play "point guard" or "shooting guard".
While competitive basketball is carefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have developed for casual play. Competitive basketball is primarily an indoor sport played on carefully marked and maintained basketball courts, but less regulated variations are often played outdoors in both inner city and rural areas.
Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution, one guard, two forwards, and two centers or two guards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, more specific positions have evolved, namely:
- Point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Notable PGs are Seijūrō Akashi, Makoto Hanamiya and Shun Izuki.
Notable point guards from the NBA past and present: Magic Johnson, Gary Payton, John Stockton and Tony Parker.
- Shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense, mainly long-ranged; and guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense. Shintarō Midorima, Reo Mibuchi and Junpei Hyūga are SGs.
Notable shooting guards from the NBA past and present: Michael Jordan, Kobe Bryant, Reggie Miller and Dwyane Wade.
- Small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively. Examples of small forwards are Ryōta Kise, Kotarō Hayama and Shōgo Haizaki. Even though Kuroko's position is noted as a question mark, his assumed positions would be closest to small forward out of the five.
Notable small forwards from the NBA past and present: Larry Bird, Scottie Pippen, Elgin Baylor and LeBron James.
- Power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense). Daiki Aomine, Taiga Kagami and Chihiro Mayuzumi are examples of PFs.
Notable power forwards from the NBA past and present: Karl Malone, Shawn Kemp, Dirk Nowitzki and Tim Duncan.
- Center: uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound. Some centers are Atsushi Murasakibara, Teppei Kiyoshi and Eikichi Nebuya.
Notable centers from the NBA past and present: Shaquille O'Neal, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Wilt Chamberlain and Bill Russel.
The above descriptions are flexible. For most teams today, the shooting guard and small forward have very similar responsibilities and are often called the wings, as do the power forward and center, who are often called post players. While most teams describe two players as guards, two as forwards, and one as a center, on some occasions teams choose to call them by different designations.
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In Kuroko no BasukeEdit
Basketball plays an important role in Kuroko no Basuke, as it is the main theme. All the characters that have appeared either play basketball, are coaches or are managers. The manga only focuses on high school basketball, with teams from different schools competing against each other. These teams compete in tournaments, like the Interhigh, the Winter Cup and the Nationals. This basketball scene mainly takes place in Tokyo.